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Persian Gulf

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The Persian Gulf (Persian: خليج فارس, Khaleej-é-Fars, in Arabic: Al-Khaleej Al-Faresi الخلیج الفارسي), in the Middle East region, it is an extension of the Gulf of Oman located between Iran (Persia) and the Arabian Peninsula. Since the 1960s, Gulf Arabs and their states have often referred to the water body as the Arabian Gulf (which is in fact the ancient name of the Red Sea) but this is not commonly used in English and is not acknowledged by organizations such as the United Nations. See Persian Gulf naming dispute.

This inland sea of some 233,000 kmē is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz, and its western end is marked by the major river delta of Arvand/Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Its length is 989 kilometres separating mainly Iran from Saudi Arabia with the shortest divide of about 56 kilometres in the Strait of Hormuz. The waters are overall very shallow and have a maximum depth of 90 metres, and an average depth of 50 metres.

Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are (clockwise, from the north): Iran, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar on a peninsula off the Saudi coast, Bahrain on an island, Kuwait and Iraq in the northwest. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf.

The oil-rich Arab countries (excluding Iraq) that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Gulf States. They are the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait and Oman.

The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil and related industries dominate the region.

 Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from larger map of the Middle East.

Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from larger map of the Middle East.

 

 

The Persian Gulf was the focus of the Iraq-Iran War that lasted from 1980 to 1988, with each side attacking the other's oil tankers. In 1991 the Persian Gulf again was the background for what was called the "Persian Gulf War" or "The Gulf War" when Iraq invaded Kuwait and was subsequently pushed back, despite the fact that this conflict was primarily a land conflict.

The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialisation and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region.

The Persian Gulf was the focus of the Iraq-Iran War that lasted from 1980 to 1988, with each side attacking the other's oil tankers. In 1991 the Persian Gulf again was the background for what was called the "Persian Gulf War" or "The Gulf War" when Iraq invaded Kuwait and was subsequently pushed back, despite the fact that this conflict was primarily a land conflict.

The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialisation and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region.

       Satellite image showing the Persian Gulf
Satellite image showing the Persian Gulf

 

British Residency of the Persian Gulf (1763 -1971) :

  • 1763:British Residency established at Bushir in Persia by the British East India Company.
  • 8 Jan 1820 - 15 Mar 1820:Treaty with the "Trucial Coast States" and Bahrain,abolishing slave trade and forbidding piracy and warfare between the states (This last point was never fully implemented).
  • 1822:Persian Gulf Residency established by Britain.
  • 1822 - 1873:Subordinated to the governor of Bombay.
  • 1835:Treaty with the Trucial States, installing a truce of six months a year, during the pearling season.
  • 1843:Treaty renews the treaty of 1835 for ten years.
  • 1853:Treaty with Trucial States, renewing the treaty of 1835 for an unlimited period.
  • 1873 - 1947:Subordinate to British India (from 1946 resident in Bahrain).
  • 1861:Protectorate treaty with Bahrain (completed by treaties of 2 Dec 1880 and 1892).
  • 8 Mar 1892:Informal protectorate with Oman and formal protectorate with the Trucial States.
  • 1899:Protectorate treaty with Kuwait (completed 3 Nov 1914).
  • 3 Nov 1916:Protectorate treaty with Qatar.
  • 16 Dec 1971:End of British protectorate presence in the Persian Gulf.

Agents:

  • 1763 - 1812 : ....
  • c.1798 : Mirza Mahdi Ali Khan
  • c.1810 : Hankey Smith
  • 1812 - 1822 : William Bruce (acting to 1813)

Chief political residents of the Persian Gulf :

(for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the Trucial States)
  • 1822 - 1823 : ohn Mcleod
  • 1823 - 1827 : Ephraim Gerrish Stannus
  • 1827 - 1831 : David Wilson
  • 1831 - 1835 : David Alexander Blane
  • 1835 - 1838 : James Morrison
  • 1838 - 1852 : Samuel Hennell
  • 1852 - 1856 : Arnold Burrowes Kemball
  • 1856 - 1862 : James Felix Jones
  • 1862 : Herbert Frederick Disbrowe (acting)
  • 1862 - 1872: Lewis Pelly
  • 1872 - 1891: Edward Charles Ross
  • 1891 - 1893 : Adelbert Cecil Talbot
  • 1893 : Stuart Hill Godfrey (acting)
  • 1893 : James Hayes Sadler (1st time)(acting)
  • 1893: James Adair Crawford (acting)
  • 1893 - 1894 : James Hayes Sadler (2nd time)(acting)
  • 1894 - 1897 : Frederick Alexander Wilson
  • 1897 - 1900 : Malcolm John Meade
  • 1900 - 1904 : Charles Arnold Kemball (acting)
  • 1904 - 1920: Percy Zachariah Cox
- Acting for Cox -
  • 1913 - 1914 : John Gordon Lorimer
  • 1914 : Richard Lockinton Birdwood
  • 1914 : Stuart George Knox (1st time)
  • 1915 : Stuart George Knox (2nd time)
  • 1915 - 1917 : Arthur Prescott Trevor (1st time)
  • 1917 - 1919 : John Hugo Bill
  • 1919 : Cecil Hamilton Gabriel
  • 1919 - 1920: Arthur Prescott Trevor (2nd time)

Chief Political Residents :

  • 1920: Arnold Talbot Wilson (acting)
  • 1920 - 1924 : Arthur Prescott Trevor
  • 1924 - 1927 : Francis Bellville Prideaux
  • 1927 - 1928 : Lionel Berkeley Holt Haworth
  • 1928 - 1929 : Frderick William Johnston
  • 1929  : Cyril Charles Johnson Barrett (acting)
  • 1929 - 1932: Hugh Vincent Biscoe
  • 1932 - 1939: Trenchard Craven William Fowle
  • 1939 - 1946: Charles Geoffrey Prior
  • 1946 - 1953:William Rupert Hay(from 1952, Sir William)
  • 22 Oct 1953 - 1958:Bernard Alexander Brocas(from 1955, Sir Bernard)
  • 1958 - 1961 Sir George Humphrey Middleton
  • 1961 - 1966 Sir William Henry Tucker Luce
  • 1966 - 1970 Sir Robert Stewart Crawford
  • 1970 - 15 Aug 1971: Sir Geoffrey Arthur
See also

External links

 

Regional map showing the word Bahr Fars, ("Persian Sea") in Arabic, from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by the great geographer Istakhri.

Regional map showing the word Bahr Fars, ("Persian Sea") in Arabic, from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by the great geographer Istakhri.

 

Categories: Persian Gulf | Gulfs | Indian Ocean | Middle East

 

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